Chapter 15: SPEAKING TO PERSUADE

 

 

PERSUASIVE SPEECH ON A QUESTION OF FACT
PERSUASIVE SPEECH ON A QUESTION OF VALUE
PERSUASIVE SPEECH ON A QUESTION OF POLICY
NEED, PLAN, PRACTICALITY
MONROE'S MOTIVATIONAL SEQUENCE

 


 

PERSUASIVE SPEAKING DEFINITION:
intended to
affect the attitudes and belief of listeners
        -- using combination of logic and appeal
        -- always consider the needs of audience

example:
explaining the electoral college is speaking to inform
advocating popular election of president is speaking to persuade

NATURE OF PERSUASION
* urging group to change attitude and/or belief
        -- take action
        -- do things they may be reluctant to do

When you speak to persuade: acting as an advocate

* change people's minds
* get them to agree to you
* act on that belief

Your goal might be:

* defending idea
* refuting an opponent
* sell a program or idea
* inspire to action

To do it, you must communicate info clearly>>
        -- informative speaking an important aspect of persuasive speaking

persuasive speaking more complex and ambitious
        -- audience analysis more important
controversial topics: it is easy to "polarize" your audience
you are dealing with audience knowledge of topic AND beliefs
        -- some will, some will not, already be on your side
        -- only some can be persuaded
        -- you need realistic sense of what you can accomplish


VERY BRIEF HISTORY
Greeks and Romans: studied persuasive speaking in systematic way
citizens spoke for themselves in court and at governmental councils

Aristotle: brief notes
Aristotle's passion: to record the known world
        -- with 1,000 employees, created 400 books
        -- one was the foundation of persuasion

in the Rhetoric: Aristotle described the types of "appeals" speaker could use

2 kinds: ARTISTIC and INARTISTIC proofs
artistic
: kinds of appeals persuader could create, control, use
        -- how the persuader presented his/her case
inartistic: out of control of persuader but still influence outcome
        -- the weather on the day speech took place
        -- physical location of speech

ARTISTIC PROOFS included

ETHOS: kind of person you are
        -- your education, honesty, reputation, delivery skills

LOGOS: appeals to the rational intellect
        -- proving that we need a change

PATHOS: appeals to our passions and will; using emotional proofs
        -- appealing to deeply held values

 


TYPES: fact, value, policy

FIRST: QUESTIONS or PROPOSITIONS OF FACT
Similar to informative speech: statements that something is true
* trying to find a true answer when there isn't an absolute answer
* evaluating inconclusive issues
* persuading that your answer is best

HOW? prove position by compiling evidence
* introduce enough information to convince audience of factual truth
* processed primarily in left side of brain (logos)
* often arranged topically, (spatial possible)

example
argue that UFO's exist
* unexplained sightings/visitations
* show by factual evidence that many sightings cannot be explained
* collect testimony
        -- people that have gone on rides
        -- psychologists that have studied them

specific purpose: to persuade my audience that extraterrestrials visit the earth
central idea: Many military reports of UFO's and the testimony of those that have been taken inside them are proof of extraterrestrials
2 main points

others examples (from book)
        -- to persuade my audience... that long term exposure to EMAG fields can cause health problems
        -- to persuade my audience... standardized achievement tests discriminate against minorities

What do the examples have in common?
* purpose limited to accepting particular view of facts

Sometimes speeches go beyond, into values...

SECOND TYPE:
QUESTIONS/PROPOSITIONS OF VALUE
appeals based on value judgments
        -- establishes something as good, bad; valuable, worthless, moral, immoral

examples:

Stalin was more dangerous than Hitler
Swimming is the best form of exercise
bicycling is the ideal form of land transportation
Euthanasia is humane

Goes beyond knowledge and into beliefs, morals, values

HOW? introduce appeals, information, criteria
* provide evidence: make listeners arrive at your conclusion
        -- claims should agree with what listeners already feels and believes
* justifying your claim with facts
* consider the personal feelings and values of audience

Value speeches have strong implications for our actions, but by themselves, they are not a call to action; requesting listeners do something is in realm of policy speech

THIRD TYPE:
QUESTIONS/PROPOSITIONS ON POLICY
* argue that some action be taken
* characterized as "should" or "ought"
* asking for passive agreement or immediate action (preferred!)

passive agreement
* asking audience to make a judgment
* appeals to reason and emotion

immediate action
not just agreement but "call to action"

* what the audience should do
* take this approach whenever possible
        -- action reinforces belief
        -- you're gaining more serious commitment
* make recommendations as specific as possible
* tell what to do and how to do it

HOW? Three basic issues: NEED, PLAN, PRACTICALITY

first step: need:
* convince listeners there's a need or problem
* more willing to accept recommendations if they believe problem exists

  • flip side: speaker believes no need for change:
    --convincing problem does not exist

second, plan:
* what is the solution to the problem?
* it is easy to complain, difficult to offer better alternatives
* identify major features (7 to 9 minute speech)
* explain aspects that might affect audience's willingness to accept

third: practicality:
* how well will it work? what are the implications?
* showing plan is workable
* citing expert testimony
* citing successful implementation elsewhere

  • flip side: opposing shift in policy
  • show it is impractical
  • causes more problems

CONSIDERATIONS OF POLICY SPEECH PREP

how much time to devote to need, plan, practicality,
* depends on knowledge on topic of audience
        -- low: spend more time on need
        -- high: spend more time on plan and practicality

ORGANIZING "CHANGE IN POLICY"

common to use PROBLEM/SOLUTION
* problem: need
* solution: plan and practicality

PROBLEM-CAUSE-SOLUTION
requires speaker to identify causes, preferable approach

COMPARATIVE-ADVANTAGE
* audience knows of problem
* different solutions exists
* compare and contrast to establish your solution as better

MONROE'S MOTIVATIONAL SEQUENCE
* motivational sequence used often by advertisers
* effective! useful to the student

1-ATTENTION

(introduction)
* getting attention of audience
* relating to audience
* showing importance
* startling opening
* arousing curiosity
* stories, visual aids

example:

higher tuition
imagine a college with no choice of classes
each year mapped out for you
severe limitation of choices

2-NEED

* establish a need for change--state it clearly
* illustrate with supporting materials
* statistics, examples, testimony
* relate to values/vital concerns of audience
* prime audience to listen to your solution

example:

testimony from university officials

3-SATISFACTION (plan)

* provide solution
* present plan
* show how it will work
* offer details
* make sure audience has clear understanding

example:

higher tuition
more financial aid

4-VISUALIZATION (practicality)

* intensify desire by visualizing benefits
* use vivid language and imagery
* show what audience will get from it
* how will they profit

example:

more classes
more teachers
scheduling choices

5-ACTION (conclusion)

* specific call to action
* what to do, how to do it
* final, stirring appeal that reinforces commitment to act

example:

petition to university
petition to congress (Pell Grants)

 

 


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