ETHOS : Aristotle :"level of credibility
you establish with audience"
your goal: gain required response from audience
* but not at any cost
* you must have strong sense of integrity
SPEAKERS GOALS AND METHODS
* is goal ethically sound?
* is it right to influence others?
* do the means justify the ends?
* public speaking is powerful medium; ethics very important
RULES OF THUMB
be well informed about subject
you have an obligation to the audience to
* explore topic completely
* explore both sides of issue
* learn both sides of an issue
* seek out competing viewpoints
be honest in what you say
* it is unethical to falsify or to deceive about your true purpose
* don't distort for own purpose (don't be a spin doctor)
* don't falsify facts or use too few facts (a little knowledge is dangerous)
* don't present tentative findings as firm conclusions
* Preserve choices of others
--listener endowed with falsehoods cannot make intelligent decisions
use sound evidence
* it is unethical to distort or use specious reasoning to explain and support
* don't take quotations out of context
* don't juggle statistics
* don't present the unusual as representative
--true lies: you are lying with "the truth" with the above
* employ sources that are objective and qualified
word-for word copying
pilfering from 2 or 3 sources
speaker fails to give credit for particular parts
--quotes and paraphrases must be accredited
--sources of material must be cited
--any idea that is not your own must be cited
employ valid reasoning
* avoid making hasty generalizations
* avoid making causal connections where there are none
* avoid making invalid analogies
it is ethical to: support idea resulting from reflective thinking and systematic study
ethical to reject idea if shown by evidence or logical analysis to be doubtful
* appealing to passion
* name calling
* appealing to psychological needs
* appeals based on prestige
* appealing to tradition
* appealing to majority opinion
* appealing to some authority
WHAT DO YOU THINK?
who do you consider ethical speaker and why?
who do you consider unethical speaker and why?