PSYCHOLOGY OF AUDIENCES
SITUATIONAL AUDIENCE ANALYSIS:
GETTING INFORMATION about the audience
TAILOR MESSAGE TO TARGET AUDIENCE
* Why are good speakers audience centered?
* What is the primary purpose of speech making?
-- to get a desired response from listeners
-- but not at any cost!
Is being audience centered unethical?
* adapting what you say for certain groups is not
-- changing ideas and content to pander to audience is!
ADAPTING MESSAGE FOR PARTICULAR AUDIENCE.
* To whom am I speaking?
* What do I want them to know, believe or do?
* What is the most effective way of composing, presenting to accomplish aim?
ADJUST TO CONCERNS OF AUDIENCE
* part of considering other points of view and fields of experience
* their feedback gives information; adjust to it
* knowing the audience ahead of time is preferred
-- the more you know, the sharper the message can be tailored
-- the less adjusting during speech
CLASSMATES AS AUDIENCE
* they are an authentic audience!
* great opportunity to inform and persuade
* best classroom speeches take audience seriously
* be ready to adapt to change, improve with feedback
* consider every audience worthy of your best efforts
* if you treat speeches in here seriously: any topic you prepare conscientiously can influence listeners:
-- enrich their filed of experience,
-- broaden their knowledge, change their views.
attending: it's up to
speaker to direct audience's attention
* auditory perception is selective
-- message sent may not be the message received
what is egocentricism?
* people hear only what the want or need to hear
DEMOGRAPHICS OF AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
what is demographics?
* observable traits of a group
How does it relate to speech making?
* identify general demographic groups
* gauge importance of those features to particular speaking situation
* considering the relationship to your speech
AGE: How does it affects outlook?
* Our class?
* don't assume topic is necessarily masculine/feminine
* avoid false gender distinctions/stereotypes
* acknowledge true gender distinctions
* few of us were raised in gender-neutral situation
RELIGION: must not assume your beliefs are universal
* strong trigger area! strong reactions both in agreement and disagreement!
-- easily polarizing to audiences
RACIAL, ETHNIC, CULTURAL backgrounds: our class?
* California: whites will minority by 2000
* Arcata: strong Native American and Portuguese communities
* group affiliations give clues to interests and attitudes
* occupation, economic position, social standing, education,
What can it do for you?
more useful information; further shaping of speech direction
SIZE: how does it affect speech?
* larger audience will take a more formal presentation
PHYSICAL SETTING: how does it affect speech?
* time of day, room, unpleasant surprises
* control what you can
-- don't freak out when surprises happen; adapt, adopt and improve
DISPOSITION TOWARD THE TOPIC: how does it affect speech?
* assess interest in your topic
-- adjust as necessary
* knowledge base of audience on your topic
-- avoid being too technical
* attitude of audience to your topic: extremely important to consider
-- adjust to audience needs
DISPOSITION TOWARD THE SPEAKER: how does it affect speech?
* audience response invariably colored by perception
* how competent you are perceived influences effectiveness of speech
* if audience believes you have their interest at heart you are likely to get a positive response
DISPOSITION TOWARD THE OCCASION: how does it affect speech?
* audience has definite idea about what is appropriate
* violating expectations could lead to a hostile audience
-- does speech fit assignment?
-- occasion dictates length (persuasive speech: 7 to 9 minutes)
* effectiveness of tool relates to effectiveness of gathered knowledge
fixed alternatives (yes/no)
scale questions: allows more leeway in response
-- often more useful information
-- helps you gauge strength of audience beliefs and values
open ended: allows more detailed responses
* more than you sometimes need
Best of all worlds, use all three
* plan questionnaire carefully
* phrase question to get precise information you need
* ask clear, unambiguous questions
* keep it brief
ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE
* the key: how you apply new found knowledge of audience
Speaking on question of fact, value, policy
* audience analysis more important
* tailor message to be persuasive
* adjust to their knowledge, beliefs
* find your target audience
-- never able to persuade all
-- some already with you
-- those that might be persuaded is your target audience
* find out how this audience might respond to your topic
required for persuasive speech
* aim to your target
* consider their objections
* answer their objections
* put self in place of target audience
* be tough on yourself
* ask the questions they will
* refute the reasoning
* leave nothing to chance
whatever speech or method, if your target audience is carefully considered, you will have a more successful speech
use the questionnaire
* generate useful stats
* use "open ended" questions to generate testimony