What is the advantages of using supporting evidence in a speech?
* audiences are suspicious of unsupported claims
* use supporting material to prove or disprove claims
* students not perceived as experts; good support helps build credibility
When good support crucial?
* when your topic is challenging
* when your audience has opposing opinions and viewpoints
What are the three basic kinds?
* examples, statistics, testimony
What are two different kinds?
* brief or extended
What are brief examples?
* referred to in passing to illustrate a point
* cumulative series of specific examples can make a strong impression
What are extended examples?
illustrations, narratives, anecdotes
* they are longer and more detailed, more vivid
* the drama of an extended example pulls the audience in
What are hypothetical examples?
* "why Johnny can't read"
* brief story that relates to a general principal
* since it is made up, be sure to follow up with statistics or testimony
What should you use examples for?
* clarify unfamiliar or complex ideas
* to reinforce your ideas
* to personalize ideas and add human interest that is vivid and textured
--make sure they are representative; not atypical
Why should you practice the delivery of extended examples?
* extended example should have the cohesion of a short story
* extended example should exploit elements of drama
Numbers to back up claims
What are two kinds of statistics usage?
* specific or cumulative
What can statistics do for you?
* statistics can make claims credible and specific
* statistics can enhance credibility
* series of statistics can create an impact
* can help document/enliven defined problem
what should you keep in mind when using statistics?
* make sure they are representative
* make sure they come from a wide, representative sampling
* check on the reliability of source
* with polarized issues, don't use "stacked" statistics
* seek statistics that are objective and non-partisan
* use statistics to quantify your ideas and concepts
What is the difference of mean, median, mode
* mean:average; high and low ends can distort
* median: is the middle group
* mode: most frequently occurring number
Why should you use stats sparingly?
* too many will have negative, numbing effect
What should you do when incorporating statistics in your speech?
* identify sources
* explain your statistics : interpret and use comparison
* help with visualization; be creative
* round off complicated statistics
* use visual aids to augment and clarify statistics
Where can you find statistics?
* world almanacs
* statistic abstract of the US
* statistical yearbook
* World Wide Web
* reputable sources and studies
the words of someone we can believe in
What are two kinds of testimony?
expert and peer
What is expert testimony?
quotes from people with high initial credibility
What can expert testimony do for you?
* enhances your credibility
What is peer testimony?
quotes from folks that are not prominent figures
What can peer testimony do for you?
* it can add strong emotional appeal and impact
What is the difference between quotations and paraphrasing?
direct quotes are:
* convey meaning precisely
* eloquent, witty, compelling
* is used when a quote too long or has awkward phrasing
* Accuracy is paramount! (even with paraphrasing)
* get testimony from qualified, unbiased sources
* give credit where credit is due
* there are important ethical implications with examples, statistics, testimony
* evidence is more likely to be persuasive if it is new
* go beyond what the audience already knows
YOU ARE YOUR OWN EXPERT
* don't discount what you know
* don't depersonalize it, but support it with researched supporting material
* life stories always interesting