a) establish eye contact and rapport
* getting attention is needed as soon as you step to the lectern
* wait confidently for audience to settle and focus on you
* relate topic to audience
b) state importance* tell your audience why speech is important to them
* striking statistics
* explain how your topic will effect them
c) startle the audience* use a clever opening line
* use striking statistics
* be sure they relate to your speech!
* don't use shock just to be shocking
* audience will get annoyed
d) beginning with rhetorical questions
- it involves audience
- sometimes you'll ask just one rhetorical question
- sometimes you'll ask a series; this draws audience in deeper
- tactic works best when rhetorical questions are meaningful to your topic and your audience
- pause after each for dramatic impact
- give time for audience to formulate answer
- arouses curiosity and most people are curious
e) series of statements
- progressively draws audience in
- good attention getter
- needn't be well known author
- if it is from known author, can lend you credibility
- humorous quotes can be used to good effect
- brief is better
- arouses interest and emotionally involves audience
- personal stories especially good
- gives a sense of sharing and revealing
- humor works well to disarm potentially hostile audience
- delivery important: telling story for maximum impact
- use eye contact, changes in tone, character voices
- referring to the occasion
- inviting audience participation using audio/visuals
- relating to previous speaker
- do this whenever possible; shows you were a good listener
- enhances your credibility
What are their strengths and weaknesses?
What tiny crystal fortified the coffers of many ancient empires and laid waste to others? What mineral has the power to create and the power to destroy? What is "good as gold" when scarce and "cheap as dirt" when abundant?
The answer to all of these questions is salt, the spice of life. Today, I would like to look at the importance of salt in history, and how we spice up our lives with salt today, and at the role salt will probably play in our future.
- series of questions for attention
- intros topic clearly
- concise preview statement
- no establishing of credibility
- needs more direct relating to audience.
We have so much unused human potential. By improving the use of your time, you can have much more time for social activities. You can use your mental processes more fully, thereby improving your grades. You can also increase your physical stamina and improve your health. We must learn to know our bodies.
- relates to audience
- air job of getting attention
- does not reveal topic of speech
- no credibility
- no preview
A six year-old-collie lay battered and helpless by the side of the road. The car that hit her had broken her pelvis, dislocated her hip, and smashed her jaw. It had also blinded her, and she whimpered in pain and fear.
Unfortunately, this true story happens too frequently because of the growing problem of pet population. Having grown up on a farm with animals of all kinds, I care deeply about their welfare, and I have become aware through my veterinary courses of how serious the problem of pet overpopulation is.
- excellent with attention getting
- good with establishing credibility
- lack of preview statement
- could be strengthened with more direct relating to audience.
- shocking introduction gratuitous?
Every problem has at least two sides. When one side is right, and the other side is wrong, the problem is easy to solve. But what if both sides have merit in their arguments? How do you solve these problems?
Balancing the rights of everyone in an adoption is one of these problems. The parents who give up the child have a right that all the information they disclose be kept confidential, while the adopted child has a right to know about the identity of his or her natural parents.
Today I'd like to explore this problem with you and look at one approach to solving it.
- good job revealing topic
- good job previewing main points
- does not establish credibility
- weak attention getting
- let us know the speech is ending
- reinforce our understanding and/or commitment
- this seems obvious; but watch for it in student speeches
- abrupt endings take you by surprise; disorients
- pause before you signal the conclusion , then:
- all it takes is key phrase:
- in conclusion...
- let me end by saying...
- in closing...
2--REINFORCING CENTRAL IDEA: major function of conclusion
- summarizing your speech: restate the main points
3--HAVE A KICKER
- can use a quote for ending: common and effective (brevity is the soul of wit)
- dramatic statement: can make a "crescendo" ending; lasting impression
- referring to introduction ideas: brings a "wholeness" to the experience