Chapter 8 and 10: Organizing and Outlining



good organization lends you better credibility as speaker

MAIN POINTS: central features of speech

Number of main points: 4 to 5 maximum


Reorganize the following eight Main Points into two Main Points, each with four sub-points.

I.    The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting
      defense spending.

II.   The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by raising
      income taxes.

III. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by imposing a
      luxury tax on nonessential items.

IV.  The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting
       welfare spending

V.   The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting
       foreign aid.

VI.  The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by stricter
       enforcement of income tax collection.

VII. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by adding a
       tax surcharge for upper-income families.

VIII. The deficit in the federal budget could be lessened by cutting
        aid to states and cities.







I. One way to reduce the deficit in the federal government is by        
   cutting spending.









A. Defense spending should be cut.

B. Welfare spending should be cut.

C. Foreign aid should be cut.

D. Aid to states and cities should be cut.

II. Another way to reduce the deficit in the federal budget is by
    increasing revenue.









A. Income taxes could be raised.

B. The collection of income taxes could be more strictly enforced.

C. A luxury tax could be imposed on non-essential items.

D. A tax surcharge on upper income families could be instituted.



CHRONOLOGICAL: time pattern OR series of events

SPATIAL: follow directional pattern

CAUSAL: show cause and effect relationship

PROBLEM-SOLUTION: two main points:

  1. showing the existence of problem;
  2. presenting a workable solution

PRO-CON: two main points:

TOPICAL: subtopics evident, parts of the whole


CONTINUUM: arranged on scale;

ACRONYM: creates a word

INITIALS: Familiar sets of letters

ALPHABET: arranged along the alphabet

ALLITERATION: arranged a-z or according to acronym

ANALOGY: creating a metaphor to an object or picture, etc.



separating main points

pattern of wording: parallelism

time devoted: pace yourself carefully


main points are assertions


1-TRANSITIONS: words/phrases indicating change of thought

2-INTERNAL PREVIEWS: letting the audience know what's coming

3-INTERNAL SUMMARIES: remind what they have just heard

4-SIGNPOSTS: brief statement; where you are in a speech

QUESTIONS: introduce main points with questions



The OUTLINE is the plan or blueprint


must be uniform in style:

labeling introduction, body, conclusion

consistency of style:


standard outline has a clear visual framework:
shows relationships of elements:

1) main point

a) subpoint

b) subpoint

* sub-subpoint

* sub-subpoint

- sub-sub-subpoint

main points: reveals structure/organization

label transitions, summaries, internal previews

bibliography: required for later speeches



Intro Speech Outline

SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To inform my audience about my experience with CRPS.

CENTRAL IDEA: My experience of CRPS before and after I was diagnosed. 





Attention: I can stand up here and say the phrase 'chronic illness' or 'mental illness' and I know at least one person's name that you know or love will pop into your head. We all know someone who is fighting this familiar battle. I am still fighting this battle as I speak. I live with a chronic illness. 

(Transition: 'to be more specific..' )


Reveal Topic: I live with CRPS, which is an acronym for "complex regional pain syndrome".


Preview: Today, I am going to share my experience with CRPS.


A.    It will be split into two phases.


1.     The first phase is before diagnosis.


2.     The second phase is after diagnosis. 


(Transition: "I am going to start with..")




      I.         The first half of my experience with CRPS, which is "before diagnosis"


A.    In August of 2014, I started to feel the symptoms.


1.     I had pain in my neck and hands. 


a)     My pinkies curled up and couldn't move.


B.    In October of 2014, my symptoms started to worsen so I seeked medical attention.


1.     I started experiencing full body pain and fell into a deep depression. 


2.     I was referred to the UCSF "pain team" to seek answers.


a)     I had to do a full body pain test, where I was officially diagnosed with CRPS.


(1)  My central nervous system is damaged.


(Transition: "that brings me to..")


    II.         The second half of my experience with CRPS, which is "after diagnosis"


A.    In May of 2015, I started to receive treatment. 


1.     I decided I would not use "hard" over the counter pain medication.


("I also knew that my mental health could not be ignored, so..")

B.    In July of 2015, I started seeing a psychologist.


1.     He helped me find methods to manage my depression and cope with everyday pain.


C.    In present day, I am getting by the best that I can. 


1.     I struggle to stay mentally healthy every single day, but I am no longer depressed.


2.     I manage my pain everyday through a healthy lifestyle.


a)     I eat a healthy diet, exercise daily, and get good sleep.


b)     I know my physical and mental limits.


(1)  I know what my body can and cannot do.


3.     I give back to those who are also dealing with chronic pain.


a)     I used my last 3 birthday parties to run a toy drive for the UCSF children's hospital. 




SIGNAL: Now that you know me on a level that's more than visual, let me end by saying:


REVIEW: My experience with CRPS is easy to identify through two phases: before and after my diagnosis. 


KICKER: and like I said, if no one's name popped up in your head at the beginning of this speech, mine now will.





Adrienne Banh 

Comm 100 3PM

Floss, James

16 October 2017 

History of Insulin


SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To inform my audience the major historical developments of insulin.  

CENTRAL IDEA: The vast improvement of insulin developed through the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. 





Attention and interest: Who is she? She's rather a very close friend of mine. Some may even say we look alike. Truthfully, she's a friend who not only saved my life, but also the lives of many who are diagnosed with diabetes. Her name is Insulin. 

Reveal topic: Diabetes, a definition provided by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, explained that it "is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high." From the early findings of diabetes, many human beings were brutally perished due to an unknown cause—a disease that would turn an excruciating life expectancy within three weeks said Jim Turner, a diabetes educator. The unknown cause brought upon the discovery of insulin. Through the doctors and nurses I've met in the hospital, they've explained that insulin is a hormone that releases into the bloodstream in the body pertaining to the endocrine system, where glands, or organs regulate blood sugar levels. Of December 2016, a diabetic author Ginger Vieira, explained that approximately 57 million people living with Type 1 diabetes are encountering death due to the unavailability of insulin. Without the vital medication, one cannot sustain the ability to live.

Credibility and Goodwill: Although, as an individual diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes for thirteen years, carrying around an insulin pump since my childhood, I am educated with the fundamental function of insulin with the aid of Dr. Vargas, my endocrinologist—a doctor who specializes in restoring a patient's hormones. Additionally, I would attend diabetic workshops and conventions whenever Rady Children's Hospital provided me the opportunity. However, I have evermore ignited myself an abundant curiosity as to where the origins of insulin begun and how insulin improved throughout the centuries.   

Preview statement: With this interest, I would like to share with you the significant findings of insulin throughout the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. 

(transition: Let's start with the 19th century.)


I.      The many vital discoveries of insulin shed its light in the 19th century. 

a)   In 1869, Paul Langerhans stumbled on cells that produce insulin.

                                          i)         While conducting a lab in the field of pathology, he came across the pancreatic islets, or what is now named after his discovery, the 'Islets of Langerhans.'

(1)  The 'Islets of Langerhans' are tiny clusters of cells that disperse through the pancreas, according to the Diabetes Research Institute Foundation. 

(2)  These pancreatic islets contain beta cells. 

(3)  As explained by, a health platform publishing daily information on managing diabetes, said "beta cells are unique cells in the pancreas that produce, store and release the hormone insulin."

(4)  Additionally, a purpose of an pancreas as provided by Columbia University Medical Center explained that it is "an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar."

(5)  However, the unknown function of the islet discovered by Langerhans will remain a mystery until another few years. 

                                        ii)         Although, Langerhans made a remarkable contribution in the beginning of the vast searchings for understanding diabetes, Bridget Montgomery, The Diabetes Council publisher of the recent article "From Death to Life: The Discovery of Insulin," stated that "it still took some time to understand the functioning of the pancreas."

b)   However, in 1889, the incredible study was expanded even further by a German researcher, Oscar Minkowski and his partner, doctor Joseph von Mering. 

                                          i)         Medical researchers still had challenges as to where the sudden disease stumbled upon and how to cure it; however, Minkowski and Mering made their scientific debut. 

(1)  Both conducted an experiment in which they removed the pancreas of a dog. 

(a)   Author, Montgomery, mentioned that the two doctors removed the pancreas from the body of the dog, which resulted in the dog contracting diabetes. 

(b)  But she stated when the doctors "surgically tied off the duct in which the pancreatic juices flowed, the dog only developed some minor digestive issues, but not diabetes."

(c)   Furthermore, not only the function of the pancreas is to regulate blood sugar levels but to also aid the digestive system.

(d)  This discovery came to one of the major significant events of history; the two skilled doctors who unleashed an opening to understanding insulin.  

c)   Despite the fact that, this was only the beginning of the incredible finding, many people still struggled with the hardships of diabetes. 

                                          i)         The only way individuals could've adapted without the treatment was to enable a strict diet and to wait patiently. 

                                        ii)         However, the longer a person waits without insulin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acknowledged that "[w]hen there isn't enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in [the] bloodstream, which over time can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease."

(Transition: Now that I've shared the significant findings of insulin in the 19th century, let's move on into the 20th century.) 

II.    The many vital discoveries of insulin shed its light in the 20th century. 

a)   In 1921, doctors Frederick Banting and Charles Best found a approach of removing the pancreas of many laboratory dogs to isolate the cells that make insulin.

                                          i)         From conducting this trial, they would then attempt to produce pure insulin to regulate human blood sugar levels. 

(1)  In Vice President for Research of The Ohio State University, Alfred B. Garret''s 1963 book, The Flash Genius, contributed that the exploration took the two doctors ninety-two dogs to encounter the disease.

(2)  In addition to the experiment concluding that the removal of the pancreas diagnosed the dog with diabetes, they also discovered that the dog's blood glucose level increased, and its body weakened and dehydrated—explained by Montgomery. 

(3)  The reason for the inclination of the blood glucose levels was a result of a molecule called ketones; Linda Thrasybule, author of an September 2012 article, "People Dying of Diabetes Who Never Knew They Had It, Study Finds"proclaimed that "if ketone levels climb too high, they can poison the body, causing chemical imbalances that can lead to coma, or death."

(4)  Garrett stated, with the use of the frozen combination of salt and water from the pancreas they've discovered—both of the doctors were able to maintain the dog's blood sugar level and making the dog gain a sufficient amount of weight which allowed it to become stronger.

(5)  However, due to the inadequate supply of the extract, the dog's blood sugar levels skyrocketed, leading to its death. 

(6)  The extract injected into the dog was now called isletin. 

(7)  Due to the short supplies of dog they had left, they needed to attain a rather larger supply of pancreatic isletin; as a result they decided to obtain a larger amount of supply of pancreas from a cow—said author, Garrett.  

                                        ii)         In the following year of 1922, biochemist Bertram Collip made the powerful change in purifying insulin.

(1)  Both, Banting and Collip injected the substance in their body; as a result, they experienced their blood sugar levels declining, making them feel hungry and nauseated. 

(2)  The Chemical Heritage Foundation, a headquarter of preserving the history of scientific adventures, explained that victorious discovery led scientists to now focus on their first patient who happened to be a young boy named Leonard Thompson.

(3)  The child was on the verge of death, but insulin saved his life—the injection was truly a success. 

(4)  Therefore, he was able to live—regaining his weight and strength—informed by PBS journalist, Dr. Howard Markel.


                                       iii)         This monumental legacy opened many doors for numerous scientists to spread the treatment for human beings diagnosed with the deadly disease. 

                                       iv)         Within 60 years, an even more purified form of insulin goes on the market worldwide by the company, Eli Lilly.

(1)  From that point on, they marketed a newer type of insulin that would alter change in absorbing, metabolising and excreting—as provided by the American Diabetes Association. 

(2)  This new type was the new trademark called Humalog. 

(3)  A vile that would also nourish and sustain the many lives, including myself since diagnoses.   

(transition: Now that I've discussed the many significant findings of insulin in the 19th and 20th century, let's finalize with the 21st century.)

III.  The many vital discoveries of insulin shed its light in the 21st century. 

a)   Rather than constantly waiting to warm insulin for every syringe injection, the modern era has now allowed diabetes to inject insulin through the touch of the insulin pen and insulin pump. 

                                          i)         The convenience of having the two creates a platform for many diabetes individuals. 

                                        ii)         The intake for both are quick and efficient; it's literally on the hip your body.  

b)   In 2015, doctor Edward Damiano created an invention called the iLet in which the device is able to replicate a pancreas that can simultaneously deliver insulin and glucagon every five minutes. 

                                          i)         My endocrinologist once educated me the function of a glucagon, it is an injection to prevent my blood sugar from dropping.  

                                        ii)         Obtaining a glucagon kit brings many responsibilities such as constantly carrying it around my backpack and if I were to faint, it would cause severe problems not only to myself but for loved ones as well. 

                                       iii)         Damiano expressed that having a pump that simultaneously injects insulin and glucagon can benefit diabetes from controlling hypoglycemia—low blood sugar levels, and hyperglycemia—high blood sugar levels. 

                                       iv)         The company hopes to fulfill their test trial in 2017. 



Signal the end: Before I end my thought, I would like to remind you how insulin has improved throughout centuries: 

Review main points: The significant findings of insulin has strongly developed through the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. 

Ending "kicker": Although insulin is only a temporary diabetic treatment, it has given me the opportunity to live longer with little pain and discomfort. I hope one day there will be a cure that can eliminate diabetes and change the world for the better. But as of right now, I have a close friend that will always stick by my side.





Association, American Diabetes."The History of a Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin" Diabetes Stops Here, 21 Aug. 2012,


Bos, Carole. "Insulin - A Life-Saving Discovery." AwesomeStories.Com, 19 Feb. 2014,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes: What's Insulin Resistance Got To Do with It? | Features & Spotlights | Resources & Publications | Diabetes | CDC. 11 Oct. 2017,

Colorado State University. "Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Pancreas." Hypertexts for Biomedical Sciences, Accessed 15 Oct. 2017.

Dalarna University. "Insulin Pump Affects Person's Quality of Life, Diabetes Study Shows." News-Medical.Net, 27 Mar. 2013, Beta Cells - What They Do, Role in Insulin. Accessed 15 Oct. 2017.

"Frederick Banting, Charles Best, James Collip, and John Macleod." Chemical Heritage Foundation, 1 June 2016,

Garrett, Alfred Benjamin. The Flash of Genius. Princeton, N.J., Van Nostrand, 1963.

Howard Markel. "How a Boy Became the First to Beat Back Diabetes." PBS NewsHour, 11 Jan. 2013,

Landers, Mary. "THE PAST AND FUTURE OF DIABETES: [HOME Edition]." Savannah Morning News; Savannah, Ga., 13 Jan. 2000, p. 1B. ProQuest,

Mestel, Rosie. "Booster Shots ROSIE MESTEL; Timeline Shows the Trials and Errors of Treating Diabetes: [HOME EDITION]." Los Angeles Times; Los Angeles, Calif., 3 June 2002, p. S.2. ProQuest,

Montgomery, Bridget. From Death to Life: The Discovery of Insulin. 24 Sept. 2017,

Nobel Lecture. Frederick G. Banting - Nobel Lecture: Diabetes and Insulin. 15 Sept. 1925,

Petit, William A., and Christine A. Adamec. The Encyclopedia of Diabetes. Facts on File, 2002.

Professor David Fankhauser. Pancreas and Islets of Langerhans — Science Learning Hub. 2011,

Rosie Cotter. "Big Picture." Big Picture, Accessed 14 Oct. 2017.

THE MNT Editorial Team. "The Discovery Of Insulin - How Was Insulin Discovered?" Medical News Today, Accessed 15 Oct. 2017.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, et al. "Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance | NIDDK." National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Accessed 14 Oct. 2017.

Thrasybule, Linda, et al. "People Dying of Diabetes Who Never Knew They Had It, Study Finds." Live Science, 27 Sept. 2012,

U.S National Library of Medicine. Diabetes. Accessed 14 Oct. 2017.

Vieira, Ginger. "Insulin for All: How Many Diabetics Are Without the Insulin They Need to Live" Diabetes Daily, 10 Nov. 2015,




Eat Local Seafood! 

Meghan Fox

SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To persuade my audience that buying local caught fish or catching your own is a way for fighting against foreign traders.

CENTRAL IDEA: Americans are eating a lot of foreign produced seafood and neglecting the fact that our wild fish has more nutritional value which could be staying within our borders.



Attention and interest: Who wants to eat some fish fed only pellets or raised in overcrowded pens with the labeled slapped on it, "fresh wild caught" with tiny letters at the bottom saying produced in China?


Reveal topic: Sorry for the one student who doesn't care about fish, according to the surveys you're going to have to hear one more speech about fish and how in today's world, we don't follow up on where our food comes from and that we are sending off our most nutritional wild fish in return for mostly farmed fish.


Credibility and Good Will: Being a fisheries student makes me open my eyes to what is happening within our fishing practices and I have read articles from Harvard, a book called American Catch by Paul Greenberg, an interview with Paul Greenberg, and some other interesting facts about our fisheries through NOAA, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration.


Preview statement: I am going to talk about how so much of our fish in our supermarkets are from foreign countries and how if we just took the extra step in buying local or catching our own we are helping with the support of our American fisheries.

(transition: So why don't we start with knowing where our food comes from.)


I) Americans are usually not eating seafood caught from our waters.

A) Americans point of view is that they want cheap fast food so seafood gets cut.

(a) Other countries are willing to pay that extra buck to get that authentic taste of the ocean.

(i) As mentioned in an interview with author Paul Greenberg, he says how 95 percent of Americans are not interested in that taste of the ocean anymore and they have grown to be accustomed to the bland industrialized products that may be cheaper.

B) In my last speech on Mislabeling and distribution of fish you can see how receiving a fish that is not from our waters may be mislabeled as something else.

1)    A lot of the times when we receive seafood from out of the country it doesn't have a label on how it was caught.

(a) In some cases the fish that don't have proper identification could also be illegally caught and this means they are aiding in the overfishing of a specific species. 

(b) When I was thinking about it, a lot of people don't know where their food comes from or they don't pay attention to that at all. 

(i) They are used to buying off the shelf, unlike the old days when it was a family event to go out and barter for the different items of food at the local farmers market or in this case go fishing to sustain your families need for protein.

C) What doesn't make sense to me is that we import more fish than we export.

1)    NOAA or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said that around 90 percent of the fish we eat is imported and most of it is caught by Americans that gets shipped overseas and reprocessed to be sent back to America. 

(a) Hannah Lindoff from the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute stated that 79% of our wild caught Alaskan salmon is exported to China, Japan, and Europe.

(i)    The US is in the top three when it comes to seafood consumption and it doesn't make sense to be sending off so much of the fish that we catch in our waters that should be going to our plates.
*      From that interview with Paul Greenberg he says that we basically swap fish, but we swap our wild nutritious salmon for the fat farmed salmon pumped with antibiotics. 

(b)  People may say that we have too many fishing fleets and we are overfishing, but a lot of the fleets that go out are not catching for America they have been bought up by other countries because they might  be offer more money.

(i)    In the book American Catch by Paul Greenberg it says from 1985 to 2005 that fish markets and fish mongers went from controlling 60% of US seafood trade to only controlling about 10% and supermarkets went from 16% to 80%.
*      Supermarkets are where we get more of the imported fish from the different countries and that's how we keep supporting the foreign trade of seafood. 

D) We were driven to the industry that produced meat on land and strayed away from the ocean.

2)    Fish used to be more popular in the US, but when the population started growing they made more regulations because fisheries were declining.

(a) They moved from our waters inland to focus on clearing forests and letting cattle roam on wild grasslands to substitute for the missing piece in our diet for protein.

(i) In Paul Greenberg's book, American Catch he states that in 2015 Americans were only eating about 15 pounds of seafood a year compared with the 202 pounds of red meat and poultry.   

 (transition: There is hope though to make seafood great again and it starts now!)

II) Catching your own or buying local seafood is how we can eat sustainably and support the American catch. 

A) There is a large crowd that only purchases things produced in America or the people who like to eat healthier.

1)    If people are more informed about how most of the fish they purchase is coming from China and is less in nutritional value they may change their minds.

(a) If we start to buy only local or catch your own fish, that's a start to fighting against the foreign trade of fish.

(i) From the surveys more than 60 percent of you have gone fishing and I encourage you to keep that up and practice in the ways of catching your own food. 

2)    There are tons of health benefits that come from eating wild caught fish.

(a)  According to an article from the health department in Harvard if you were to consume at least one to two 3-ounces of fish a week this reduces your chance of dying from heart disease by 36%.

B) We have enough wild fish in our waters to keep to ourselves and if we stopped trading our wild catch then we would cut down on imports tremendously. 

1)    Ecosystems could also have a comeback with fleets being forced to move elsewhere to harvest fish for other countries not in US waters.

C) If this still isn't enough for you to buy local or catch your own you can at least download this app called Seafood Watch that was made by the Monterey Bay Aquarium to fight the producers of unsustainable fishing.

1)    It's a free app and you can type in any fish and it will tell you if it is an okay purchase or if they should choose something else because it might have negative effects on ocean health.

(a) In the app their main focus is to ensure a consumer that they are purchasing something that has the least impact on the aquatic environment and to keep our seafood available for generations to come.


Signal the end: As I wrap up my last speech let me go over again what I have discussed.

Review main points: I told you how we are eating less and less of fish that are from our waters and more from out of country and how we can flip that and keep our more nutritional fish to ourselves. 

Ending kicker: So after hearing about how you should eat local caught fish you can start right here in this classroom by taking some fish caught by yours truly at the grocery store.





Greenberg, Paul. American Catch: The Fight for Our Local Seafood. The Penguin Press, 2015.


Profita, Cassandra. "Exporting And Re-Importing Local Seafood?" Accessed November 30, 2017.


"Exporttrends.Pdf." Accessed November 30, 2017.

Boston, 677 Huntington Avenue, and Ma 02115 +1495-1000. "Fish: Friend or Foe?" The Nutrition Source, September 18, 2012.


"LOCAL CATCH: And the Survey Says: Local Seafood Reigns?: Coastwatch." Accessed November 30, 2017.


"Local Fish: The Challenges & Realities of Finding Sustainable Seafood." Fort Bragg Groundfish Assocation (blog), June 29, 2016.


Greenberg, Paul. "Opinion | Why Are We Importing Our Own Fish?" The New York Times, June 20, 2014, sec. Opinion.


"The Global Picture | FishWatch." Accessed November 30, 2017.


Greenberg, Paul. "The Great Fish Swap: How America Is Downgrading Its Seafood Supply." Accessed November 30, 2017.


Conniff, Richard. "Unsustainable Seafood: A New Crackdown on Illegal Fishing." Yale E360. Accessed November 30, 2017.


Adler, Lindsay. "Why Is Domestic Wild-Caught Seafood Better Than Imported Farm-Raised?" Accessed November 30, 2017. 



Survey Results


Do you care about fish?

Everyone except for one person said that they cared about fish.


Have you gone out fishing before just to practice catch and release?

Three fourths of the class said that they have gone out and practiced catch and release.


Have you gone fishing and not needed to keep a fish, but you kept it anyway? 

Surprisingly only people said that they kept fish when they didn't need to, but I think it is higher than that because I see people all the time catch fish that are probably just going to sit in the back of the freezer for a while.  


Do you know anything about Hawaiian or Native American beliefs about fishing practices and the fish themselves?

Around thirty percent of the class new something about the different fishing cultures.


How many times have you gone fishing?

0          5          10          30          100+

|---------|---------|----------|-----------|       It was split in half with a couple more not having gone fishing very much.     


How much would you say you know about the life cycle of a fish?

A lot          Moderate         Some          Very little          Nothing

|-------------------|---------------|-----------------|------------------|        There were clumps of people around each increment so we have a variety of people knowing different levels about fish life cycle.


How often do you not finish a plate with fish?

I don't touch it        Half is left        Some chunks       Little bits       All gone

|-------------------------|-------------------|------------------|----------------|       Around sixty percent of the class said that they left little bits or the plate was empty after they were done eating. The other half didn't touch fish at all or rarely did.  


How old do you think is the longest living fish is today?

The correct answer is 400 years old and surprisingly there were some people that either were on the money or a little off. One person guessed 400, one guessed 420, and five guessed 300. The other guesses started at having no clue all the way up to 5000 years old.





Goal of speaking outline is remembering